The Impact of Mental Health on Reentry & Ways to Address it | NIA

The Impact of Mental Health on Reentry and Ways to Address it 3


Contrary to popular belief that incarceration is meant to simply separate offenders, the prison system is actually tasked with rehabilitating inmates and reintegrating them into society as responsible citizens. However, a significant obstacle to this process is the presence of poor mental health among inmates. According to a theoretical review in a prison context, the prevalence of mental disorders is high, with depression, anxiety, substance use, and psychotic disorders predominant among others. The consequences of these disorders without adequate mental health care can hinder prisoners’ ability to reintegrate into society successfully – increasing the likelihood of additional offenses.

Addressing mental health within the context of inmates' incarceration is a critical component of fostering rehabilitation and ensuring a smoother reentry into society. Mental health challenges are prevalent among incarcerated individuals, often stemming from a complex interplay of factors such as past trauma, substance abuse, and the stressful environment of prison life.

Furthermore, the impact of mental health support extends far beyond the prison walls. A focus on mental health during incarceration lays the groundwork for successful reentry into society. Inmates who receive adequate mental health care are better equipped to confront the challenges of reintegrating into their communities. This, in turn, reduces the likelihood of recidivism, as individuals are more prepared to navigate the complexities of life outside of prison.

Recognizing the integral role of mental health throughout the incarceration and reentry process is fundamental to creating a more humane and effective criminal justice system. By addressing mental health needs within the confines of incarceration, we not only promote individual well-being but also contribute to the broader goal of rehabilitation and reducing the cycle of crime in our communities.

The importance of mental and spiritual wellness among inmates during incarceration & reentry.

Mental and spiritual wellness are increasingly recognized as critical components of overall well-being. While the significance of these health dimensions extends to the broader population, it becomes even more crucial for inmates within the prison system as long-term incarceration can leave many lasting psychological effects such as anxiety and post incarceration syndrome (PICS). As it is, incarcerated individuals face numerous challenges to their mental health, ranging from isolation and social deprivation. Neglecting their mental and spiritual well-being not only diminishes their chances of successful reintegration into society but can also perpetuate a cycle of criminal behavior borne from darker ideation.

During incarceration, the environment can be inherently stressful, isolating, and dehumanizing. Integrating mental health services and spiritual support becomes a beacon of hope for individuals grappling with the challenges of prison life. Mental wellness programs provide necessary resources for coping with stress, managing mental health conditions, and addressing underlying issues that may contribute to criminal behavior. Concurrently, spiritual support offers a sense of purpose, meaning, and connection, helping inmates find solace and a source of strength in their spiritual beliefs.

As such, it is imperative that prison authorities adopt comprehensive strategies to address inmates’ mental and spiritual health, and below are a few ways in which it can be done. By addressing the holistic needs of individuals during incarceration and reentry, society not only promotes personal growth and resilience but also works towards breaking the cycle of recidivism, ultimately contributing to safer and more compassionate communities.

The Importance of Mental health screenings for the incarcerated

One of the key steps toward addressing inmates’ mental health is the assessment and diagnosis of any underlying mental illnesses. Many individuals who end up in prison have pre-existing mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, personality disorders, and others. According to the Department of Justice, the rate of inmates with mental illnesses is much higher than other adults, with 64% of jail inmates, 54% of state prisoners, and 45% of federal prisoners having reported having mental health concerns.

This is why conducting comprehensive mental screenings upon admission is important, as it can help identify such issues and, in turn, equip correctional staff with the necessary information to provide appropriate therapeutic interventions and suitable treatment options. For instance, offering regular one-on-one counseling sessions with trained psychologists or therapists will provide inmates with a safe space to express their emotions and work through their psychological distress.

One important aspect during the rehabilitation process within prisons is the mental health of the incarcerated individuals. Without sufficient focus on mental health during incarceration, the likely hood of re-offending post incarceration are substantially increase.

The Importance of Mindfulness exercises during incarceration & for reentry

In the realm of criminal justice and rehabilitation, the incorporation of mindfulness exercises during incarceration and reentry has proven to be a transformative and invaluable tool. Mindfulness, rooted in the practice of cultivating present-moment awareness, offers inmates a unique and powerful means of self-discovery, emotional regulation, and personal growth.

Within the confines of incarceration, where stressors and tensions abound, mindfulness exercises provide a respite for individuals facing the challenges of prison life. Techniques such as meditation, deep breathing, and mindful movement offer inmates the opportunity to develop coping mechanisms, manage stress, and gain a sense of control over their emotional responses. In the often tumultuous environment of a correctional facility, mindfulness becomes a sanctuary, fostering a more positive mental state and reducing the likelihood of conflict.

As individuals prepare for reentry into society, the benefits of mindfulness become even more pronounced. The practice equips former inmates with essential skills for navigating the complexities of the outside world. It cultivates a heightened awareness of one's thoughts and actions, promoting better decision-making and impulse control. Mindfulness also aids in breaking the cycle of negative thought patterns and behaviors that may have led to incarceration in the first place.

Examples of Mindfulness exercises that can help during incarceration & for reentry:

Providing a sense of peacefulness is important in order to navigate high-tension environments like prisons, which is why mindfulness exercises can greatly help inmates. One of these exercises is tai chi, which teaches control and intention. In a correctional setting where distractions abound, tai chi serves as a tool to develop concentration and discipline. In addition, these exercises can also engage inmates in physical exercise, which is much needed in a restrictive environment.

Another type of mindfulness exercise that can be taught in prison systems is yoga. This is because yoga’s spiritual benefits have proven an effective tool for improving mental well-being. These benefits include cultivating an acute awareness and appreciation by focusing on the present moment. In addition, yoga promotes restraint, which can mitigate high levels of stress and anger. It also encourages introspection that lets inmates process their emotions and unresolved trauma with forgiveness and self-compassion.

The Importance of Mindfulness Group therapy sessions during incarceration & for reentry

Besides interventions targeted towards individuals, group therapy sessions can also be established within the prison system to provide inmates with a sense of community and support that is often lacking in their everyday lives. According to the Society of Clinical Psychology, cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness-based therapy are some of the most effective approaches for inmates. Peers who share similar experiences through these sessions can offer empathy, understanding, and motivation to one another. These therapy groups could focus on various topics, such as anger management, substance abuse, or post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the specific needs of the inmate population.

By witnessing others’ struggles and progress, inmates may develop more empathy and gain valuable insight into their own thought patterns and behaviors. Furthermore, group therapy sessions can help inmates develop essential skills, including effective communication, conflict resolution, and coping mechanisms, which will significantly contribute to their personal growth and overall mental well-being.

As individuals approach reentry, the benefits of mindfulness group therapy become even more pronounced. These sessions offer a support network for those transitioning back into society, providing a space to share experiences, discuss challenges, and reinforce the mindfulness skills acquired during incarceration. The group dynamic promotes empathy and understanding, reducing feelings of isolation and enhancing the sense of connection that is crucial for successful reintegration.

Moreover, mindfulness group therapy equips individuals with practical tools for coping with the stressors of reentry, such as finding employment, mending relationships, and adapting to newfound freedoms. The skills developed in these sessions, including heightened self-awareness and emotional regulation, empower participants to make more informed and constructive decisions, reducing the likelihood of recidivism.

In essence, mindfulness group therapy sessions represent a holistic and evidence-based approach to rehabilitation within the criminal justice system. By fostering mindfulness and creating a supportive community, these sessions contribute not only to the mental well-being of incarcerated individuals but also to their ability to reintegrate into society as responsible, resilient, and self-aware citizens.

Written in collaboration with Rebecca Snyder for the NIA